Miyerkules, Hulyo 06, 2011

animal and plant toxins :)

heyah!! :) today's blog is about animal and plant toxins.
we may not notice it but a great deal of toxins also comes from plants and animals, to guide you, my reader, i have formed an outline of a few plants and animals toxins :) here is a video from someone of the few who survived the black widow bite. :)

Name: Animal Venoms and Poisons
Use: medicinal uses
Source: spiders, insects, snakes, lizards, fish, and frogs
Recommended daily intake: none (not essential)
Absorption: varies but can be very fast, e.g. bites
Sensitive individuals: children (small size), previously sensitized
Toxicity/symptoms: varies
Regulatory facts: none
General facts: long history of use and desire to avoid
Environmental: global distribution, concern about expanding distribution to new areas
Recommendations: avoid

Name: Plant
Use: medicinal uses
Source: wide variety of plants
Recommended daily intake: none (not essential)
Absorption: intestine, skin
Sensitive individuals: children (small size), previously sensitized
Toxicity/symptoms: varies
Regulatory facts: none
General facts: long history of use and desire to avoid
Environmental: global distribution, concern about expanding distribution to new areas
Recommendations: generally avoid

okay soooo lets start! :)
i HATE spiders. really. i mean not that i don't like spiderman :p
its just weird to stair at their webs and watch them crawl.. especially if they look like this:

freaky huh???? well for your information: this is the wolf spider :)
Wolf Spider (Scientific name – Lycosa raptorialerythrognatha) – This spider has no connection with a real wolf or it is neither a type of werewolf who can transform into wolf from a spider nor does it look like one. The Wolf Spider has a deadly venom and ranks third in the deadliest spiders found. The Wolf Spider too is found in the same region of the banana spider, in the Central and South America

waaaaaaah soooo scary O__O lets have another one :)

Colubridae (colubrids)

Snakes that are classified underneath this mess obligation appear as venomous and non-venomous remarkably. Also, their aversion is definitive less intense to the one of elapids further viperids. Despite this, their comestible needs prompt medical importance. drop Antarctica, unbroken weird continents are populated hole up these types of snakes. The fangs of these snakes are spun out further grooved, further located pressure the channel of the hefty kick about. 

yup that's very dangerous alright. tsk tsk the last one will be one of my favorite animals :) although poisonous :/ its the forg. well not just ordinary frogs that we poorly dissect O__O

"Their poison contains toxins that dull the nerves and produce heart and repiratory (sic.) failure. The skin of an adult P. terribilis has enough batrachotoxin to kill 20,000 mice, or 100 adult humans. Two-tenths of a microgram of batrachotoxin is lethal in the human blood stream and each adult P. terribilis contains nearly 200 micrograms.

ok here are the plant toxins :)) and their definitions :)

Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum) is found most frequently in Canada, but has been included in some commonly used pasture mixes in the US. This plant is adapted to cool climates and heavy, poorly drained clay soils.
Alsike Clover

It grows 15-30 inches tall, and has a small ½-inch diameter pink flower that forms at the ends of secondary branches from the main stem. It should be differentiated from red clover, which has a larger flower, hairy stems and leaves and a white inverted "V" on the leaf. Alsike clover is known to cause two syndromes, photosensitization (short-term exposure) and "big liver syndrome" (long-term exposure). There is also a potential for nitrate poisoning. The more common and acute lesions related to photosensitization are characterized by:
  • reddening of the skin exposed to sunlight, followed by either superficial or deep dry necrosis of the skin
  • edema swelling and discharge, resulting in crusty inflamed areas. This occurs specifically in the unpigmented pink-skinned areas of the face.
Possible symptoms of nervous and digestive disorders, including colic and diarrhea and oral lesions related to alsike clover poisoning may also be observed.

The long-term consequence of alsike clover consumption is "big liver syndrome," appearing as a progressive destruction of the liver with increased connective tissue (appears as an enlarged liver). It appears that this is related to the accumulation of a still-unknown toxin. The primary tests for evaluating liver function and hepatic disease measure the serum enzyme activity of aspartate amino transferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) and lactic dehydrogenase - 5 (LDH-5). Liver biopsy may be required to characterize the degree and type of liver damage and provide a prognosis.

Alsike clover poisoning does not appear to occur every time it is consumed. It is thought that the toxicity may be caused by a mycotoxin which is either created by a fungus growing on the plant, or created/accumulated by the plant under stressful growing conditions.

Poison OakPoison Oak is the most notorious plant for causing rashes in the west.  (Its counterpart in the east is poison ivy.)
Unfortunately, it is also very common and there are opportunities to find it on almost every campout.  Like poison ivy, the leaves of poison oak (usually) occur in threes, hence the rule "leaves of three, let it be".
Identification:  Usually grows close to the ground, leaves occur in threes and have scalloped edges like oak leaves.  At its peak, poison oak leaves are often distinguished by a sticky resin on top of the leaves but you cannot count on this.  (The scout book also mentions white berries, but you almost never see them.)  There are many plants that look similar to poison oak, but it is bad enough that you should just stay away from anything that even looks close.  In the fall, poison oak leaves often turn bright red.
Note that although poison oak is usually a low plant, it can climb other plants and even form large shrubs under the right growing conditions.
Symptoms:  Skin rash up to 48 hours later, immediately for those very sensitive.
Treatment:  Change clothes immediately and rinse or shower with large amounts of cool water to rinse off the poison as soon as it is discovered.  Some sources advise against using soap.  Keep clothes in a plastic bag to wash separately.  Watch for allergic reaction.
You can treat a rash with calamine lotion or a solution of baking soda and water.  These will provide comfort but not actually cure the rash.

Deadly NightshadeAlso called belladonna, this plant is not native to Oregon but can be found here frequently.  Camp Ireland is rife with it.

Identification:  Very attractive purple and yellow flowers, in the late summer accompanied by brilliant red oblong fruit.  The plant grows in shady areas and has a very distinctively bad smell.
Symptoms:  Very poisonous; increased heartbeat, in severe cases, paralysis
Treatment:  It is unlikely that someone would actually eat the berries (due to the smell), but even touching any part of the plant will leave a poisonous reside on the hands.  Do not force vomiting, drink plenty of water, wash hands thoroughly with soap, and seek treatment for poisoning.

BUT WAIT!!!!!!!!!!!


well, there you go!! :) happy reading see you next blog guys :) hope you liked it.. bye bye Godbless :))

Martes, Hunyo 14, 2011

clinical chemistry28-c

pituitary gland.

i can see why you are so moody,
your pituitary gland is in action, you see
if ever we could only have eyes inside us,
we'll find out its only a size of a pea

a pea so powerful it can control our emotions
why still keeping up in pace,
we shall learn its other functions
and its amazing features, we will trace.

oh, are you wondering why you're so tall
or are you wondering why you haven't grown at all?
well my dear that is due to the growth hormone
so read on and it will be shown

the pituitary releases so many things,
and yes, even stress, it could bring
the adenocorticotropic hormone is an example
of how our moods can rock and roll

how about the thyroid stimulating hormone you might say?
well it's a tool you may test right away,
if the patient has hyperthyroidism,
my friend medication is needed, it seems

are you wondering when you were an infant
that milk comes out of mommy's in an instant?
its due to prolactin, no doubt,
a hormone our mothers can't feed us without..

see i have stated in poetic form,
what these hormones do and where are they from
anterior pituitary gland, a useful thing
and all the wonders to our body it brings :)

END :)

Miyerkules, Hunyo 08, 2011

Clinical Chemistry 3

hey guys!! :)

before reading my article, click this link below for fun! :) let's see how aware we are of our hormones :)


well? how many correct answers did you get? :)

haha. to tell you honestly, i got four out of ten ^__^
for a medtech student that's quite a shame, but it means i have lot to learn :)
well, to the topic then! :) endocrinology. what comes into your mind?
me? i think of hormones :) but its broader than that :))

according to a super information source for students in a hurry... yes you guessed it, wikipedia :)
here is the definition of endocrinology..

Endocrinology (from Greek ἔνδονendo, "within"; κρῑνωkrīnō, "to separate"; and -λογία-logia) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions called hormones, the integration of developmental events such as proliferation, growth, and differentiation (including histogenesis and organogenesis) and the coordination of metabolismrespirationexcretionmovementreproduction, and sensory perception depend on chemical cues, substances synthesized and secreted by specialized cells.

in simple terms, its the study of the endocrine system and its babies, the hormones :) haha see how the internet can complicate definitions :))

what basically are hormones? 

Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work slowly, over time, and affect many different processes, including
  • Growth and development
  • Metabolism - how your body gets energy from the foods you eat
  • Sexual function
  • Reproduction
  • Mood
Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, thymus, thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. In addition, men produce hormones in their testes and women produce them in their ovaries.
Hormones are powerful. It takes only a tiny amount to cause big changes in cells or even your whole body. That is why too much or too little of a certain hormone can be serious. Laboratory tests can measure the hormone levels in your blood, urine or saliva. Your health care provider may perform these tests if you have symptoms of a hormone disorder. Home pregnancy tests are similar - they test for pregnancy hormones in your urine.

well, things are clearer right? :)
these are amazing creations of God, to help in shaping our body, see how awesome he is? :)
here are pictures to feast your eyes with :)

whoaaah O__O haha. the first picture is a very graphic appearance of what a human being can be when the hormones are imbalanced. you get happy, sad, excited, grumpy, and most people even have this disorder called bipolar personality... amazing right???

the second picture is the endocrine system and its workers :)

and here is more information on endocrinology :)
Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of the endocrine system, a condition that 16 million Americans have, but many are yet undiagnosed, according to Endocrine Web. Diabetes is classified into one of two types, depending on the cause of the condition. Type 1 diabetes results from an insulin deficiency in the body; type II diabetes results from the development of insulin resistance in the body.
Disorders of the thyroid gland include goiters, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. A goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland, which in some cases must be surgically removed because the enlarged tissue pushes on the trachea and esophagus, causing breathing and swallowing difficulties.
Hyperthyroidism is the presence of too much thyroid hormone, which increases cellular metabolism throughout the body. Hypothyrodism is the lack of enough circulating thyroid hormone.
see? a lot of things can happen in our body, and that's just endocrinology... a lot, way lot can happen :)
well, see you next time and on my next post .. thanks for taking time to read this :)) hope you learned something :) stay happy :D